Jason Mize, 31, faces 10 years in prison after a prosecutors in a U.S. District Court in Cincinnati charged him with deprivation of rights under color of law.
The assault happened on August 20, 2016 and left Mark Myers with a broken hip and head injuries.
Myers, 61 at the time, was at the Hamilton County jail after being arrested for theft of $120 in lighting and electrical equipment from a Home Depot.
Video from the jail shows Myers speaking with a nurse in the intake area, when Mize approaches and orders him to stand.
Mize can be seen pushing Myers toward a holding cell and shoving him so hard he collides headfirst with a concrete wall.
The FBI arrested Mize today after the county Board of Commissioners approved a settlement totaling $500,000 for Meyers last week.
Myers had filed a civil rights lawsuit in federal court.
"He'll have life-long effects from this incident," Paul Laufman, Myers' attorney, said in an interview with Cincinnati.com.
"Any settlement of this magnitude makes clear the substantial injuries that were involved and the substantial liability the county faced."
Myers' lawsuit claimed he posed no threat to Mize before he was shoved onto the floor "with such force that (he) left his feet."
Myers laid unmoving on the floor bleeding from his head.
"The interaction was so violent a nurse at the jail exclaimed to a co-worker, ‘I hope he’s not dead,'" the lawsuit said.
Myers required surgery for his broken hip.
Mize was previously disciplined for using excessive force incidents before shoving Myers – at least three times.
He initially lied and attempted to cover up what happened after he shoved Myers. An internal investigation found Mize violated "standards which rise to the level of dishonesty and excessive force."
Mize's supervisor initially determined the use of force he used on Myers complied with departmental policies on excessive force.
But Maj. Charmaine McGuffey said "Mize should be arrested and fired for his actions" after he reviewed the video.
Mize eventually resigned after it became apparent he would be fired, and possibly arrested. He does not have an attorney listed, according to court records.